Cocoa producing countries

30 years ago, 1.3 million tonnes of cocoa beans were produced worldwide. In the meantime, the quantity has more than tripled. 4.7 million tonnes were harvested in the record year 2016/17. About 95 % of the world's cocoa is grown by small farms with an average size of between 2 and 5 hectares of cultivated land. It is estimated that at least 5 million smallholders work in cocoa farming.

The German Initiatiive on Sustainable Cocoa focuses on sustainable cocoa farming in West Africa. The fundamental challenges in this region are the poverty of cocoa farmers, abusive child labour and the loss of forest land through cocoa cultivation.

Two thirds of the world's cocoa production is provided by two countries. Just under 2 million tonnes of cocoa (annual production) comes from Côte d'Ivoire. Ghana follows with 0.97 million tonnes as number 2. In Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, cocoa accounts for 61 and 66 % of family income.

Top 5 Cocoa producing countries by global production volume

Länderflaggen: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesien, Ecuador, Kamerun

Côte d'IvoireGhanaIndonesiaEcuadorCameroon
National production in tons 2018/19 2.154.000812.000200.000322.000280.000
National production in tons 2017/18 2.000.000700.000280.000270.000240.000
National production in tonnes 2016/17 2.010.000970.000290.000270.000250.000
National production in tons 2015/16 1.581.000778.000320.000232.000211.000
Total number
farmers / holdings
800.000 to 1,3 Mio.800.000800.000 to 1,7 Mio.150.337400.000 to 600.000
Average
yield kg/hectare
2,5 Mio.1,8 Mio.1,27 Mio.560.387850.000
Average area
cocoa cultivation
hectare/farm
7,465,95n.s.n.s.n.s.
Total area cocoa cultivation
in hectare
362420200 to 800520300 to 400
Certified
Production
in tons
486.842169.05752.85231.78935.526
Farm gate price
2018/19 per kg
1,34 USD
fixed minimum price
60 % of the CIF price
1.49 USD
fixed minimum price
70 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 75 - 85 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 90 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 80 % of the
world market price
Farm gate price
2017/18 per kg
1,28 USD
fixed minimum price
60 % of the CIF price
1.91 USD
fixed minimum price
70 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 75 - 85 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 90 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 80 % of the
world market price
Responsible
National authority
Le Conseil du Café
Cacao (CCC)
Ghana Cocoa
Board (COCOBOD)
Indonesian Cocoa
Board (Dekaindo)
Ministerium für
Landwirtschaft (MAG)
National Caffee and
Cocoa Board (ONCC)
Absolute deforestation
forest and other
forested area
(in 1,000 ha)
1960: 16.000
1990: 10.222
2015: 10.401
1960: n.s.
1990: 8.627
2015: 9.337
1960: n.s.
1990: 118.545
2015: 91.010
1960: n.s.
1990: 14.631
2015: 12.548
1960: n.s.
1990: 24.316
2015: 18.816
Share of
organised farmers
21 %11 %n.s.30 %20 to 30 %
Human Development
Index (Feb. 2019)
0,4920,5920,6940,7520,556


Introduction:
BDSI, Consumption of confectionery per capita, 2018, ICCO, Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics, Vol XLIII, No. 4, Cocoa Year 2016/17, KIT- Royal Tropical Institute, Demystifying the cocoa sector in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, 2018, Protokoll der Arbeitsgruppe Nachhaltigkeit, Sitzung vom 9. Mai 2018

Total number of farmers / holdings
General source: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; Dom.Rep.: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. 2016; Nicaragua: Präsentation WCC 2018; Kolumbien: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. 2016

Total area under cocoa cultivation
General source: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; Landwirtschafsministerium Peru, 2015. Nicaragua: Präsentation WCC 2018; Kolumbien: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador, 2016

Size of household
Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018

Cocoa cultivation area
Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018

Yield
General source: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; Dom.Rep.: Guía técnica del cultivo de cacao en la Republica Dominicana. CEDAF. 2009; Nigeria: SEO Report 2016; Kolumbien: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador 2016

Daily income from cocoa farming
Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018. Zusätzlich für Côte d'Ivoire: Fairtrade Studie. The household income of cocoa farmers in Côte d'Ivoire and strategies for improvement. April 2018; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; keine Equivalence Scales

Daily total income
Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; no Equivalence Scales

Share of cocoa in total income
Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; Zusätzlich für Côte d'Ivoire: Fairtrade Studie. The household income of cocoa farmers in Côte d'Ivoire and strategies for improvement. April 2018

National production 2015 - 2019
General source: ICCO Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics Cocoa Year 2017/18; 2019/20.

Farm-Gate-Price 2017/18
General source: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Kamerun: SEO Report. Market concentration and price formation in the global cocoa value chain. Appendix A. 2016

Farm-Gate-Price 2018/19

https://www.confectionerynews.com/Article/2018/10/05/Cote-d-Ivoire-raises-cocoa-farmers-price-for-first-time-in-two-years

Deforestation
Global Forest Ressources Assessment. FAO. 2015, http://www.fao.org/forest-resources-assessment/current-assessment/country-reports/en/

Forest cover and forest loss
General source: own calculation based on data from Global Forest Watch. https://www.globalforestwatch.org; Wald mit mehr als 30 % Baumkronendichte

Human Development Index
General source: http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries