Cocoa producing countries

30 years ago, 1.3 million tonnes of cocoa beans were produced worldwide. In the meantime, the quantity has more than tripled. 4.7 million tonnes were harvested in the record year 2016/17. About 95% of the world's cocoa is grown by small farms with an average size of between 2 and 5 hectares of cultivated land. It is estimated that at least 5 million smallholders work in cocoa farming.

The German Initiatiive on Sustainable Cocoa focuses on sustainable cocoa farming in West Africa. The fundamental challenges in this region are the poverty of cocoa farmers, abusive child labour and the loss of forest land through cocoa cultivation.

Two thirds of the world's cocoa production is provided by two countries. Just under 2 million tonnes of cocoa (annual production) comes from Côte d'Ivoire. Ghana follows with 0.97 million tonnes. In Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, cocoa accounts for between 61 and 66% of family income.

 

Further to the importing and consuming countries.

Top 5 cocoa producing countries by global production volume
  Côte d'Ivoire Ghana Indonesia Ecuador Cameron
National production in tons 2018/19 2.154.000 812.000 200.000 322.000 280.000
National production in tons 2017/18 2.000.000 700.000 280.000 270.000 240.000
National production in tonnes 2016/17 2.010.000 970.000 290.000 270.000 250.000
National production in tons 2015/16 1.581.000 778.000 320.000 232.000 211.000
Total number
farmers / holdings
800.000 to 1,3 Mio. 800.000 800.000 to 1,7 Mio. 150.337 400.000 to 600.000
Average
yield kg/hectare
362 420 200 to 800 520 300 to 400
Average
cocoa cultivation area
hectare/farm
7,46 5,95 n.s. n.s. n.s.
Total area under cultivation
cocoa in hectares
2,5 Mio. 1,8 Mio. 1,27 Mio. 560.387 850.000
Certified
Production in tons
486.842 169.057 52.852 31.789 35.526
Farm gate price
2017/18 per kg
1,28 USD
fixed minimum price
60 % of the CIF price
1.91 USD
fixed minimum price
70 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 75 - 85 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 90 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 80 % of the
world market price
Farm gate price
2018/19 per kg
1,34 USD
fixed minimum price
60 % of the CIF price
1.49 USD
fixed minimum price
70 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 75 - 85 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 90 % of the
world market price
Free market price
approx. 80 % of the
world market price
Responsible
National authority
Le Conseil du Café
Cacao (CCC)
Ghana Cocoa
Board (COCOBOD)
Indonesian Cocoa
Board (Dekaindo)
Ministerium für
Landwirtschaft (MAG)
National Caffee and
Cocoa Board (ONCC)
Absolute deforestation
forest and others
forested area
(each in 1000 ha)
1960: 16.000
1990: 10.222
2015: 10.401
n.s.
1990: 8.627
2015: 9.337
n.s.
1990: 118.545
2015: 91.010
n.s.
1990: 14.631
2015: 12.548
n.s.
1990: 24.316
2015: 18.816
Share of
organised farmers
21 % 11 % n.s. 30 % 20 to 30 %
Human Development
Index (Feb. 2019)
0,492 0,592 0,694 0,752 0,556
Sources
Introduction BDSI, Pro-Kopf-Verbrauch von Süßwaren, 2016, ICCO, Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics, Vol XLIII, No. 4, Cocoa Year 2016/17, KIT- Royal Tropical Institute, Demystifying the cocoa sector in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, 2018, Protokoll der Arbeitsgruppe Nachhaltigkeit, Sitzung vom 9. Mai 2018
Total number of farmers / holdings Allgemeine Quelle: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; Dom.Rep.: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. 2016; Nicaragua: Präsentation WCC 2018; Kolumbien: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. 2016
Total area under cocoa cultivation Allgemeine Quelle: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; Landwirtschafsministerium Peru, 2015. Nicaragua: Präsentation WCC 2018; Kolumbien: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador, 2016
Size of household Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018
Cocoa cultivation area Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018
Yield Allgemeine Quelle: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; Dom.Rep.: Guía técnica del cultivo de cacao en la Republica Dominicana. CEDAF. 2009; Nigeria: SEO Report 2016; Kolumbien: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador 2016
Daily income from cocoa farming Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018. Zusätzlich für Côte d'Ivoire: Fairtrade Studie. The household income of cocoa farmers in Côte d'Ivoire and strategies for improvement. April 2018; Ecuador: Landwirtschaftsministerium Ecuador. WCC 2018; keine Equivalence Scales
Daily total income Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; keine Equivalence Scales
Share of cocoa in total income Côte d'Ivoire und Ghana: Demystifying the cocoa sector. KIT. 2018; Zusätzlich für Côte d'Ivoire: Fairtrade Studie. The household income of cocoa farmers in Côte d'Ivoire and strategies for improvement. April 2018
National production 2015 - 2019 Allgemeine Quelle: ICCO Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoaa Statistics Cocoa Year 2017/18; 2019/20.
Farm-Gate-Price 2017/18 Allgemeine Quelle: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016; Kamerun: SEO Report. Market concentration and price formation in the global cocoa value chain. Appendix A. 2016
Farm-Gate-Price 2018/19 https://www.confectionerynews.com/Article/2018/10/05/Cote-d-Ivoire-raises-cocoa-farmers-price-for-first-time-in-two-years
Responsible national authority Allgemeine Quelle: Strengthening the competitiveness of cocoa production and improving the income of cocoa producers in West and Central Africa. Südwind Institut. 2016
Deforestation Global Forest Ressources Assessment. FAO. 2015, http://www.fao.org/forest-resources-assessment/current-assessment/country-reports/en/
Forest cover and forest loss Allgemeine Quelle: eigene Berechnungen auf Grundlage von Global Forest Watch. https://www.globalforestwatch.org; Wald mit mehr als 30 % Baumkronendichte
Human Development Index Allgemeine Quelle: http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries